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This Guide is not intended as a source for expansion joint design or application details.
Total Equivalent Max Axial: The calculation of universal type Expansion Joints has been simplified by a modified equation for the axial movement per fere. Calculated maximum pressure stndards PSIG before expansion joint may squirm because of inplane instability.
The fatigue life expectancy can be defined as the total number of complete cycles which can be expected from the expansion joint. The bellows resistance factor or working spring rate is shown in lbs per inch of lateral offset.
Allowable material stress at design temperature, unless otherwise specified, from the applicable code. Zero length is shown for single bellows. The bellows resistance factor or working spring rate is shown in lbs per inch of compression or extension.
Squirm is detrimental to bellows performance in that it can greatly reduce both fatigue life and pressure capacity. Any change in these factors will result in a change in the life of the Expansion Joint. Bellows meridional bending stress due to pressure.
Benchmark table inputs and outputs have been revised, with material class and correction factor. This rating may be different for each size, type and make of Expansion Joint standatds is established by the manufacturer. The distinction of thin versus thick bellows has been added.
Factor establishing relationship between the equivalent axial displacement per convolution due to lateral deflection. Joints Externally Pressurized Exp. The design of every Expansion Joint must be such that the total displacement per convolution from all sources does not exceed the rated values. It is characterized by tilting or warping of one or more convolutions.
Bellows pitch and height tolerances were redefined relative to diameter. Cycle Life is theoretical and is dependent upon the maximum stress range to which the bellows is subjected.
A cycle is defined as one complete movement from the initial position in the piping system to the operating position and back to the initial position.
This is calculated on the full effective cross section of the bellows known as the effective area. The maximum amount of movement axial extension, axial compression, lateral deflection, angular rotation, or any combination thereof which an Expansion Joint is capable of absorbing. Bellows are rated by the manufacturer in terms of maximum allowable axial displacement per convolution, ec and ee.
All subjects underwent ocular and retinal examination. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography SD-OCT was used to measure the thickness of different layers of the retina at macular and peripapillary regions and at different quadrants.
Results: There were 32 eyes in the MS group and 74 eyes in the control group. The thickness of the RNFL did not statistically differ in each of the quadrants between groups. Conclusion: The macular ganglion cell complex mGCC parameters were significantly reduced in recently diagnosed cases of MS as compared to healthy individuals.
Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, optic neuritis, optical coherence tomography Multiple sclerosis MS is a disorder characterized by inflammation and neuroaxonal degeneration that leads to irreversible disability.
These retinal layers have been studied to understand the pathophysiology of MS.
It is linked to vitamin D deficiency and high consanguinity in the region. This study evaluated the thickness of different macular parameters and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer RNFL at different quadrants in recently diagnosed MS patients without ON and compared these measurements to those of healthy individuals to determine their role in early detection of axonal damage in MS patients.
Methods This cross-sectional study was performed between June and June The ethics committee of our institute approved this study. Patients diagnosed with MS by a neurologist but without any ocular symptoms of MS were included in the present study MS group.
A patient with a history of any retinal disease or ON, including glaucoma, refractive error of 4.
Healthy volunteers with best-corrected visual acuity BCVA of 1. All subjects signed a written informed consent to participate in the study. Three ophthalmologists, one neurologist, and one optometrist were the field investigators. Data were collected on age and gender in both groups.